Broadway Presbyterian Church - New York City

 
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Broadway Presbyterian Church

601 West 114th Street at Broadway
New York, N.Y. 10025
http://www.broadwaypresbyterian.org


Organ Specifications:
601 West 114th Street (since 1912):
III/36 Austin Organs Inc., Op. 2513 (1969)
III/35 Austin Organ Company, Op. 399 (1912)
286 Fourth Avenue at 22nd Street (1855-1912):
II/27 J.H. & C.S. Odell, Op. 265 (1889)
II/23 Richard M. Ferris (1856)


In December 1822, a young pastor named Matthias Bruen proposed to the Presbytery of New York City that he begin a "Sabbath School" on the "edge of the wilderness" known today as Greenwich Village. The Presbytery hired him, without pay, as a missionary to the saloon-sodden neighborhood where the recalcitrant residents "were found reduced by intemperance to beggary, wretchedness, and death." After working there for two years, Rev. Bruen gathered his tiny flock of 10 persons and formally established the Bleecker Street Presbyterian Church on April 20, 1825. The first edifice, built in 1826 at 65 Bleecker Street, was designed by John McComb Jr., an architect of the "Old" City Hall.

Fourth Avenue Presbyterian Church - New York City  (photo: Broadway Presbyterian Church)  
Fourth Avenue Presbyterian
(1855-1910)
 
Rev. Bruen died in 1829 and was succeeded by Dr. Erskine Mason, whose pastorate including the founding of Union Theological Seminary. This was a time of deep division within the Presbyterian denomination over the issue of slavery and ecclesiastical innovations, such as allowing women to pray in public and abolishing pew fees. When the denomination split, the more liberal faction formed their own General Assembly and Erskine Mason became its stated clerk. Following the death of Dr. Erskine in 1852, Dr. Joel Parker was called to be pastor. His 11-year pastorate was plagued by conflicts that eventually split the church. About half of the families followed Parker uptown where a Romanesque-Gothic sanctuary was built in 1854-55 as the Fourth Avenue Presbyterian Church. This building was later known as "Dr. Crosby's Church" after the celebrated Rev. Howard Crosby, D.D., who founded the Hope Mission Chapel on East 4th Street, and Grace Chapel on East 22nd Street. Dr. Crosby was perhaps best known as the founder of the Society for the Prevention of Crime, which managed to briefly suspend the sale of alcohol in all city saloons, but he was also the Chancellor of New York University. Dr. Crosby was instrumental in severing the ties between Union Theological Seminary and the Presbyterian Church. After his death in 1891, The New York Times memorialized him as a man who had "done more than any other single individual in this generation to check vice in its most offensive forms."

1925 photo of Broadway Presbyterian Church - New York City  (photo: Broadway Presbyterian Church)  
 Broadway Presbyterian (1925)
After Dr. Crosby's pastorate, the church declined as members moved uptown to preferred residential areas. The Grace and Hope Chapel missions became difficult to support, and in 1898 Grace Chapel was sold. In 1899, the congregation was strengthened somewhat after merging with the Thirteenth Street Presbyterian Church, located at 135 West 13th Street, but in 1909 the congregation voted to relocate uptown. The site on Broadway and 114th Street was purchased in 1910, and on March 16, 1912, the cornerstone was laid for the present building. Louis E. Jallade designed an English Gothic sanctuary that was closely modeled on the Brown Memorial Tower of nearby Union Theological Seminary, where he was associate architect. Jallade also designed the International House north of Union Seminary, and in 1928, the Metropolitan Methodist Episcopal Church (now The Church of the Village) on Seventh Avenue and 13th Street. The new Broadway Presbyterian Church opened on November 10, 1912.
               
  Austin Organ, Op. 2513 (1969) at the Broadway Presbyterian Church - New York City  (photo: Broadway Presbyterian Church)
Austin Organs Inc.
Hartford, Conn. – Opus 2513 (1969)
Electro-pneumatic action
3 manuals, 39 stops, 36 ranks





The present organ in Broadway Presbyterian Church was installed in stages by Austin Organs Inc., beginning in 1969. As funds permitted, new divisions replaced those of the previous 1912 Austin organ, and a new three-manual console was added. The Echo division from the 1912 organ is not currently connected to the console.
               
Great Organ (Manual II) – 61 notes
16
  Quintaton
61
2
  Superoctave
61
8
  Principal
61
 
  Fourniture IV ranks
244
8
  Bourdon
61
8
  Trompete
61
4
  Octave
61
 
  Chimes
EC
4
  Nachthorn
61
       
 
     
 
     
Swell Organ (Manual III) – 61 notes, enclosed
8
  Viola
61
 
  Plein Jeu III ranks
183
8
  Viola Celeste
61
16
  Fagot
61
8
  Rohr Gedeckt
61
8
  Trompette
61
4
  Principal
61
4
  Rohr Schalmei
61
4
  Koppel Flöte
61
 
  Tremulant  
2
  Octavin
61
       
 
     
 
     
Choir Organ (Manual I) – 61 notes, enclosed
8
  Gedeckt
61
1 1/3
  Larigot
61
8
  Flauto Dolce
61
 
  Sesquialtera II ranks
122
8
  Flute Celeste [TC]
49
8
  Krummhorn
61
4
  Spitzflöte
61
 
  Tremulant  
2
  Blockflöte
61
       
 
     
 
     
Positiv Organ (console preparation)
8
  Nason Gedeckt  
 
  Cymbal III ranks  
4
  Rohr Pfeife  
 
  Tremulant  
2
  Prinzipal  
 
     
1
  Sifflöte  
 
  Cymbelstern [added 1997]  
 
     
 
     
Echo Organ [from previous organ, extant but not playable]
8
  Viol Aetheria
73
8
  Vox Humana
61
8
  Vox Angelica
73
 
 
Chimes
25 notes
8
  Gedacht
73
 
  Tremulant  
 
     
 
     
Pedal Organ – 32 notes
32
  Resultant
4
  Koppelflöte
SW
16
  Principal
32
 
  Mixture II ranks
64
16
  Quintaton
GT
16
  Posaune [ext. GT]
12
16
  Gedeckt [ext. SW]
12
16
  Fagot
SW
8
  Octave
32
8
  Posaune
GT
8
  Gedeckt
SW
4
  Krummhorn
CH
4
  Superoctave [ext.]
12
 
     
               
Austin Organ Company
Hartford, Conn. – Opus 399 (1912)
Electro-pneumatic action
4 manuals, 48 stops, 35 ranks


The original organ in Broadway Presbyterian Church was built in 1912 by the Austin Organ Company of Hartford, Conn. Austin installed the organ behind an impressive case at the front of the sanctuary, while the Echo division was located in a gallery chamber. The organ was dedicated on Sunday, November 3, 1912

     

     
Great Organ (Manual II) – 61 notes, partially enclosed with Choir
16
  Major Diapason
61
8
  Claribel Flute *
61
8
  Principal Diapason
61
4
  Harmonic Flute *
61
8
  Small Diapason
61
8
  Trumpet *
61
8
  Viole d'Amour *
61
    Chimes
EC
8
  Gamba *
61
   
* enclosed in Choir box
               
Swell Organ (Manual III) – 61 notes, enclosed
16
  Bourdon
73
4
  Flauto Traverso
73
8
  Diapason
73
16
  Contra Fagotto
73
8
  Rohr Flote
73
8
  Cornopean
73
8
  Viole d'Orchestre
73
8
  Oboe
73
8
  Viole Celeste [TC]
61
    Tremulant  
8
  Echo Salicional
73
       
               
Choir Organ (Manual I) – 61 notes, enclosed
8
  Geigen Principal
73
4
  Flute d'Amour
73
8
  Dulciana
73
2
  Piccolo
61
8
  Concert Flute
73
8
  Clarinet
73
8
  Unda Maris [TC]
61
   
Celesta
49 bars
8
  Quintadena
73
    Tremulant  
               
Solo and Echo Organs (Manual IV) – 61 notes, enclosed
8
  Flauto Major
73
8
  Harmonic Tuba
8
  Gross Gamba
73
4
  Harmonic Clarion
16
  Tuba Profunda
85
       
               
Echo Division (Manual IV) – 61 notes, enclosed
8
  Viole Aetheria
73
8
  Vox Humana
61
8
  Vox Angelica
73
   
Chimes
25 notes
8
  Gedacht
73
    Tremulant [valve]  
               
Pedal Organ – 32 notes
32
  Resultant Bass
8
  Gross Flute
12
16
  Open Diapason
32
8
  Violoncello
GT
16
  Violone [ext. GT]
12
16
  Contra Fagotto
SW
16
  Bourdon
32
16
  Tuba
SO
16
  Lieblich Gedacht
SW
8
  Tuba
SO
               
  J.H. & C.S. Odell Organ, Op. 265 (1889) in the Fourth Avenue Presbyterian Church - New York City (photo: Broadway Presbyterian Church)
Organ in Fourth Avenue Presbyterian Church:

J.H. & C.S. Odell
New York City – Opus 265 (1889)
Tubular-pneumatic action
2 manuals, 23 stops, 27 ranks






On January 7, 1889, a contract for a two-manual organ was awarded to the J.H. & C.S. Odell Company of New York City. Odell's Op. 265 was the company's "Size No. 18" specification that included "pneumatic compensating valves" applied to the Great, Swell, and Pedal Organs. This organ had a case of chestnut and cost $4,000.

     

     
Great Organ (Manual I) – 58 notes
16
  Double Open Diapason
58
4
  Octave
58
8
  Open Diapason
58
2 2/3
  Twelfth
58
8
  Gamba
58
2
  Fifteenth
58
8
  Dulce d'Amour
58
    Mixture, 3 ranks
174
8
  Doppel Flöte [wood]
58
8
  Trumpet [harmonic treble]
58
4
  Harmonic Flute
58
       
               
Swell Organ (Manual II) – 58 notes, enclosed
16
  Bourdon [wood]
58
2
  Flautino
58
8
  Open Diapason
58
    Cornet, 3 ranks
174
8
  Salicional
58
8
  Oboe [TC]
46
8
  Stopped Diapason [wood]
58
8
  Bassoon
12
4
  Forest Flute [wood]
58
    Tremolo  
4
  Violina
58
       
               
Pedal Organ – 27 notes
16
  Double Open Diap. [wood]
27
8
  Violoncello [wood]
27
16
  Bourdon [wood]
27
       
               
Mechanical Registers
    Swell to Great (coupler)   Patent Reversible (coupler)
    Swell to Pedal (coupler)   Bellows Signal
    Great to Pedal (coupler)   Eclipse Wind Indicator
               
Compositions (Patent Pneumatic compositions on Great Organ, worked by Piston Knobs placed between keys, all double-acting)
1.
  Full Organ
2.
  Full to Mixture
3.
  Full to Octave (with double off)
4.
  All the eight-feet stops
5.
  Gamba, Doppel Flöte, and Dulce d'Amour
6.
  Doppel Flöte and Dulce d'Amour
7.
  Dulce d'Amour
8.
  Harmonic Flute
               
    Balance Swell Pedal          
               
Organ in Fourth Avenue Presbyterian Church at 286 Fourth Avenue at 22nd Street:

Richard M. Ferris
New York City (1856)
Mechanical action
2 manuals, 21 stops, 23 ranks


The following specification was recorded on April 30, 1962 by F.R. Webber, whose "Organ Scrapbooks" are in the possession of The Organ Historical Society Archives in Princeton, N.J. Webber indicates "Weekly Review" at the bottom of the page.

     

     
Great Organ (Manual I) – 56 notes
8
  Open diapason
56
4
  Principal
56
8
  Dulciana bass  }
56
4
  Rohr flute [TC]
44
8
  Dulciana treble }
3
  Twelfth
56
8
  Keraulophon [TC]
44
2
  Fifteenth
56
8
  Melodia [TC]
44
    Sesquialtera, 3 ranks
168
8
  Stop'd diap. bass  }
56
8
  Cremona [TC]
44
8
  Stop'd diap. treble }        
               
Swell Organ (Manual II) – 56 notes, enclosed
16
  Bourdon [TC]
44
2
  Fifteenth [TC]
44
8
  Open diapason [TC]
44
8
  Trumpet [TC]
44
8
  Dulciana [TC]
44
8
  Hautboy [TC]
44
8
  Stop'd diapason [TC]
44
    Swell Bass:  
4
  Principal [TC]
44
16
  Bourdon
12
3
  Twelfth [TC]
44
8
  Dulciana
12
               
Pedal Organ – 25 notes
16
  Double open diapason
25
       
               
Couplers
    Swell to Great          
    Great to Pedal          
    Swell to Pedal          
               
Sources:
     "Austin Company Builds It," The Diapason (Aug. 1, 1912). Courtesy Jonathan Bowen.
     "Broadway Presbyterian Orders Austin Organ," The Diapason (Oct. 1, 1968). Courtesy Jeff Scofield.
     Dolkart, Andrew S. Morningside Heights: A History of Its Architecture & Developments. New York: Columbia University Press, 1998.
     Dunlap, David W. From Abyssinian to Zion: A Guide to Manhattan's Houses of Worship. New York: Columbia University Press, 2004.
     Nelson, George. Organs in the United States and Canada Database. Seattle, Wash.
     Ochse, Orpha. Austin Organs. Richmond: The Organ Historical Society, 2001.
     Stoddard, Wendy, and Bruce D. Johnson. "A Brief History of Broadway Presbyterian Church (1825-2000)." New York: Broadway Presbyterian Church.
     Trupiano, Larry. Contract and Specifications of J.H. & C.S. Odell Organ, Op. 265 (1889).
     Webber, F.R. "Organ scrapbook" at Organ Historical Society Archives, Princeton, N.J. Specifications of Richard M. Ferris organ (1856). Courtesy Jonathan Bowen.

Illustrations:
     Broadway Presbyterian Church website: http://www.broadwaypresbyterian.org/