Central Presbyterian Church - New York City
 

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Central Presbyterian Church
593 Park Avenue at 64th Street
New York, N.Y. 10021
http://www.centralonpark.org


Organ Specifications:
Park Avenue at 64th Street (since 1930)
IV/79 M.P. Möller, Inc., Op. 8000 (1950)
IV/69 Aeolian-Skinner Organ Co., Inc., Op. 1027 (1941)
IV/57 Hook & Hastings, Op. 2455 (1922)
Madison Avenue at East 57th Street (1915-1930)
III/30s Austin Organ Company, Op. 53 (1901) – moved (1915)
220 West 57th Street (1876-1915)
III/30s Austin Organ Company, Op. 53 (1901)
Broome Street between Elin and Marion Streets (1822-1876)
II/18 E. & G.G. Hook, Op. 185 (1855)


Central Presbyterian Church, 57th Street & Broadway - New York City  
57th Street & Broadway
 
Central Presbyterian Church was established in 1821 in a schoolroom, but opened its first church the next year on Broome Street, between Elin and Marion Streets. In 1869, a site was purchased for the congregation on 57th Street between Broadway and Seventh Avenue, and when Fifth Avenue Presbyterian Church decided to move from Fifth Avenue and 19th Street to its present location on 55th Street, they donated their 19th Street edifice to Central Church. Moved brick by brick and pew by pew to its new location, the old Fifth Avenue structure became Central's new home.

  Central Presbyterian Church, Madison Avenue & 57th Street - New York City (photo: Wurts Bros., 1928)
   
  Central Presbyterian Church, Madison Avenue & 57th Street - New York City (photo: Wurts Bros., 1928)
 
57th Street & Madison Avenue
In 1915, an unusual transaction occurred in which the Madison Avenue Reformed Church on the northeast corner of Madison Avenue and 57th Street bought Central Church (the old Fifth Avenue edifice), and in exchange, Central bought the Madison Avenue structure, moving the congregation to the Upper East Side where many of its members were then living.

Central Presbyterian Church - New York City (photo: Roger J. Ritchie)  
Park Avenue & 64th Street
 
The neo-Gothic edifice that is now Central Presbyterian Church was built between 1920-22 as the Park Avenue Baptist Church, and financed by John D. Rockefeller, Jr. Architects Allen & Collens, working with Hency C. Pelton, designed the complex which included the sanctuary, parish house, a 500-seat Bible Class study hall, offices, and two floors above the sanctuary. Originally, the tower contained a 53-bell carillon cast in 1925 by Gillett & Johnston of Croydon, England. The Rev. Dr. Harry Emerson Fosdick, the outspoken liberalist pastor of Park Avenue Baptist, drew crowds that overflowed the church and tied up traffic on Park Avenue. Rockefeller had the Riverside Church built in Morningside Heights, and the Park Avenue Baptists moved there in 1929. To the great relief of nearby apartment dwellers, the carillon—which was given by Mr. Rockefeller in memory of his mother, Laura Spelman Rockefeller—was also moved to The Riverside Church. Central Presbyterian Church then purchased the Park Avenue Baptist building, holding their first service on September 22, 1929.
               
  Console of M.P. Möller Organ, Op. 8000 (1950) - Central Presbyterian Church - New York City
   
M.P. Möller, Inc.
Hagerstown, Md. – Opus 8000 (1950)
Electro-pneumatic action
4 manuals, 80 stops, 79 ranks



The present organ was installed in 1950 by M.P. Möller of Hagerstown, Md., as their Opus 8000. The Rev. Hugh Giles, organist and choirmaster, was responsible for the design. By the late 1990s the original console, showing signs of deterioration, was removed and disassembled. In 2003, a used, two-manual Klann console was connected that could control only some of the organ's 79 ranks. Since that time, a larger four-manual drawknob console was installed.
               
Great Organ (Manual II) – 61 notes (3½" wind pressure)
16
  Quintaton
61
2
  Super Octave
61
8
  Principal
61
    Fourniture III-V ranks
249
8
  Bourdon
61
    Cymbale III ranks
183
8
  Gemshorn
61
    Tremolo  
4
  Octave
61
    Great 16'  
4
  Spitzflöte
61
    Great Unison Off  
2 2/3
  Octave Quint
61
    Great 4'  
 
     
 
     
Swell Organ (Manual III) – 61 notes, enclosed (4" wind pressure)
16
  Flute Conique [unit]
85
2
  Fifteenth
61
8
  Diapason
73
    Plein Jeu V ranks
305
8
  Rohrflöte
73
16
  Trumpet
73
8
  Viole de Gamba
73
8
  Trompette
73
8
  Viole Celeste [GG]
66
8
  Oboe
73
8
  Flauto Dolce
8
  Vox Humana
73
8
  Flute Celeste [GG]
66
4
  Clarion
73
4
  Principal
73
    Tremolo  
4
  Flute Triangulaire
73
    Swell 16'  
4
  Violina
73
    Swell Unison Off  
2 2/3
  Twelfth
61
    Swell 4'  
 
     
 
     
Choir Organ (Manual I) – 61 notes, enclosed (3-3/4" wind pressure)
16
  Dulciana [unit]
85
2
  Blockflöte
61
8
  Geigen Principal
73
1 3/5
  Terz
61
8
  Nachthorn
73
1
  Sifflöte
61
8
  Concert Flute
73
8
  Clarinet
73
8
  Dulciana
    Tremolo  
8
  Unda Maris [TC]
61
    Choir 16'  
4
  Principal
73
    Choir Unison Off  
4
  Koppelflöte
73
    Choir 4'  
2 2/3
  Rohrnasat
61
       
               
Solo Organ (Manual IV) – 61 notes, enclosed (8" wind pressure)
8
  Gamba
73
8
  English Horn
8
  Gamba Celeste
73
4
  Clarion
73
8
  Solo Flute
73
    Tremolo  
16
  English Horn [unit]
85
    Choir 16'  
8
  Harmonic Trumpet
73
    Choir Unison Off  
8
  French Horn
73
    Choir 4'  
               
Antiphonal * – 61 notes, enclosed (5" w.p.)
  Antiphonal Pedal – 32 notes
8
  Spitzprincipal
73
16
  Spitzprincipal [ext.]
12
8
  Hohlflöte
73
16
  Erzähler [ext.]
12
8
  Erzähler
73
8
  Principal [unit]
44
4
  Principal
73
4
  Super Octave
    Mixture II-III ranks
148
8
  Trompette
ANT
8
  Trompette
73
       
    Tremolo  
* played from Solo and Great by duplexed drawknobs
               
Pedal Organ – 32 notes
16
  Principal
32
5 1/3
  Quint
16
  Violone [unit]
44
4
  Choralbass
32
16
  Gemshorn [ext. GT]
12
4
  Koppelflöte
32
16
  Quintaton
GT
    Mixture IV ranks
128
16
  Dulciana
CH
    Sesquialtera III ranks
96
16
  Flute Conique
SW
16
  Trumpet
SW
10 2/3
  Quint [unit]
44
16
  English Horn
SO
8
  Principal
32
16
  Bombarde [unit]
56
8
  Violoncello
8
  Bombarde
8
  Rohrflöte
SW
4
  Clarion
               
Couplers
    Great to Pedal 8', 4'   Solo to Great 16', 8', 4'
    Swell to Pedal 8', 4'   Swell to Choir 16', 8', 4'
    Choir to Pedal 8', 4'   Solo to Choir 16', 8', 4'
    Solo to Pedal 8', 4'   Great to Solo 8', 4'
    Swell to Great 16', 8', 4'   Swell to Solo 16', 8', 4'
    Choir to Great 16', 8', 4'    
               
Adjustable Combinations
   
Solo Organ Pistons 1-2-3-4-5-6-0 (thumb)
Swell Organ Pistons 1-2-3-4-5-6-7-8-0 (thumb)
Great Organ Pistons 1-2-3-4-5-6-7-8-0 (thumb)
Choir Organ Pistons 1-2-3-4-5-6-7-8-0 (thumb)
Pedal Organ Pistons 1-2-3-4-5-6-7-8-0 (toe)
Solo Antiphonal Pistons 1-2-3-4-0 (thumb)
Great Antiphonal Pistons 1-2-3-4-0 (thumb)
Pedal Antiphonal Pistons 1-2-3-4-0 (toe)
Couplers Pistons 1-2-3-0 (thumb)
Full Organ Pistons 1-2-3-4-5-6-7-8-9-10 (thumb & toe)
  General Cancel (thumb)
  Tutti Cancel (thumb)
  Combination Lock
       
Reversibles
    Great to Pedal   Swell to Great
    Swell to Pedal   Choir to Great
    Choir to Pedal   Solo to Great
    Solo to Pedal   Full Organ
               
Mechanicals
    Chancel On/Off    
    Antiphonal On/Off  
               
Pedal Movements
    Swell Expression Pedal   Antiphonal Expression Pedal
    Choir Expression Pedal   Crescendo Pedal
    Solo Expression Pedal    
               
Console of M.P. Möller Organ, Op. 8000 (1950) - Central Presbyterian Church - New York City   Console of M.P. Möller Organ, Op. 8000 (1950) - Central Presbyterian Church - New York City   Console of M.P. Möller Organ, Op. 8000 (1950) - Central Presbyterian Church - New York City (Photo: Jeff Scofield)
               
Aeolian-Skinner Organ Co., Inc.
Boston, Mass. – Opus 1027 (1941)
Electro-pneumatic action
4 manuals, 70 stops, 69 ranks


In 1941, Aeolian-Skinner was contracted to rebuild the original Hook & Hastings organ, adding 18 new ranks and a new console. Aeolian-Skinner shop notes did not list pipecounts of the Hook & Hastings organ, but they are suggested below, based on other Hook & Hastings organs of the era.
               
Great Organ (Manual II) – 61 notes, enclosed
16
  Quintaton *
61
2
  Super Octave *
61
8
  Principal *
61
    Fourniture III-V ranks *
285
8
  Flute Harmonique
CH
    Cymbel III ranks *
183
8
  Viole d'Amour
CH
8
  Oboe d'Amour
CH
4
  Principal *
61
8
  Clarinet
CH
4
  Zauberflöte
61
    Chimes
SO
2 2/3
  Quint *
61
       
 
     
 
     
Swell Organ (Manual III) – 61 notes, enclosed
16
  Lieblich Gedeckt
73
4
  Waldflöte
73
8
  Geigen Principal
73
2
  Flautino
61
8
  Gedeckt
73
  Dolce Cornet III ranks
183
8
  Gamba
73
16
  Trumpet
73
8
  Gamba Celeste [TC]
61
8
  Cornopean
73
8
  Salicional
73
8
  Oboe
73
8
  Salicional Celeste [TC]
61
8
  Vox Humana
73
8
  Dolce
73
  Tremolo
8
  Dolce Celeste [TC]
61
    Swell to Swell 16'  
4
  Salicet
73
    Swell to Swell 4'  
 
     
 
     
Choir Organ (Manual I) – 61 notes, enclosed
8
  Diapason
73
2
  Piccolo
61
8
  Gross Flöte
73
  Fourniture V ranks *
305
8
  Gemshorn
73
16
  Trumpet
73
8
  Gamba
73
8
  Trumpet
73
8
  Flute Harmonique
73
8
  Clarinet
73
8
  Dulciana
73
8
  Oboe d'Amour
73
4
  Octave
73
  Tremolo
4
  Hohlflöte
73
    Choir to Choir 16'  
2
  Fifteenth
61
    Choir to Choir 4'  
               
Solo Organ (Manual IV) – 61 notes, enclosed
8
  Diapason
73
8
  Clarinet
73
8
  Gamba
73
  Tremolo
8
  Gamba Celeste [TC]
61
   
Chimes
20 notes
8
  Trumpet
73
    Solo to Solo 16'
8
  French Horn *
73
    Solo to Solo 4'  
               
Echo Organ (Manual I) – 61 notes, enclosed
8
  Orchestral Flute
61
8
  Vox Humana
61
8
  Viol
61
    Tremolo  
8
  Viol Celeste [TC]
49
       
               
Pedal Organ – 32 notes
32
  Diapason [ext. 2nd Diap]
12
8
  Diapason [ext. 2nd Diap.]
12
16
  First Diapason
32
8
  Flute [ext. Sub Bass]
12
16
  Second Diapason
32
8
  Gedackt
SW
16
  Sub Bass
32
4
  Waldflöte
CH
16
  Gross Flöte [ext. SO]
12
16
  First Trombone
32
16
  Lieblich Gedackt
SW
16
  Second Trombone [ext. SO]
12
16
  Violone
32
    Chimes
SO
16
  Gamba [ext. SO]
12
       
           
* stops added by Aeolian-Skinner (1941)
Couplers
    Great to Pedal 8'   Swell to Choir 16', 8', 4'
    Swell to Pedal 8', 4'   Solo to Choir 8'
    Choir to Pedal 8', 4'   Solo to Swell 8'
    Solo to Pedal 8', 4'   Hauptwerke to Choir
    Antiphonal to Pedal 8'   Swell Unison Release
    Swell to Great 16', 8', 4'   Great Unison Release
    Choir to Great 16', 8', 4'   Choir Unison Release
    Solo to Great 16', 8', 4'    
    Positiv to Great 8'   Chancel Off (tablet & toe pedal)
    Positiv to Hautpwerke   Antiph. Off (tablet & toe pedal)
             
Reversibles
    Great to Pedal (thumb & toe)   Swell to Great (thumb)
    Swell to Pedal (thumb & toe)   Choir to Great (thumb)
    Choir to Pedal (thumb & toe)   Swell to Choir (thumb)
    Solo to Pedal (thumb & toe)   Sforzando (thumb & toe)
    Antiphonal to Pedal (thumb & toe)    
             
Adjustable Combinations
   
Great Pistons 1-2-3-4-5-6-7-8 (thumb)
Swell Pistons 1-2-3-4-5-6-7-8 (thumb)
Choir Pistons 1-2-3-4-5-6-7-8 (thumb)
Solo Pistons 1-2-3-4-5 (thumb)
Echo & Antiph. Pistons 1-2-3-4-5 (thumb)
Pedal Pistons 1-2-3-4-5-6-7-8 (thumb & toe)
General Pistons 1-2-3-4-5-6-7-8 (thumb & toe)
  General Cancel
             
Mechanicals
    Choir & Great Expression   Crescendo – with slide indicator
    Swell Expression   Sforzando indicator
    Solo Expression    
    Antiphonal Expression   Tracker touch
               
  Console of Hook & Hasting Organ, Op. 2455 (1922) in Park Avenue Baptist Church - New York City (The Riverside Church Archive)
Organ built for the Park Avenue Baptist Church:

Hook & Hastings
Boston, Mass. – Opus 2455 (1922)
Electro-pneumatic action
4 manuals, 75 registers, 73 stops, 57 ranks








The organ in the former Park Avenue Baptist Church was built in 1922 by the Hook & Hastings Company of Boston. All of the pipes and mechanism of the main divisions were contained in a large chamber on the right side of the chancel, while the Echo division was in a rear gallery chamber. The four-manual console was located on the left side of the chancel. Archer Gibson (who was the personal organist for John D. Rockefeller, Jr., and others in high society) designed the specifications that had 75 registers (including Harp and Chimes). Mr. Gibson also served as the "expert adviser" on this project; without his final approval the installation would not be accepted. According to the "Memorandum of an Agreement" (June 10, 1921), the organ cost $35,000. Pipecounts were not listed but are suggested below, based on other Hook & Hastings organs of the era.
               
Great Organ (Manual II) – 61 notes, partially enclosed
16
  Open Diapason (MF) *
61
4
  Octave
61
8
  Open Diapason (FF) *
61
2
  Piccolo
61
8
  Open Diapason [English type]
61
2
  Fifteenth
61
8
  Grosse Flöte
61
    Mixture, 5 ranks
305
8
  Harmonic Flute
61
16
  Trumpet (MF)
61
8
  Zauber Flöte
61
8
  Trumpet (F)
61
8
  Viol d'Amour
61
8
  Clarinet (F)
61
8
  Gemshorn
61
8
  Oboe d'Amore [L/2 with caps]
61
8
  Dulciana
61
   
Tremolo
 
8
  Gamba ["Old German" type]
61
       
4
  Hohl Flöte
61
* unenclosed; not affected by Sub/Super couplers or Tremolo
               
Swell Organ (Manual III) – 61 notes, enclosed
16
  Lieblich Gedeckt
73
4
  Salicet
73
8
  Geigen Principal ["Old German"] *
73
2
  Flautino [small scale, conical]
73
8
  Gedeckt
73
    Dolce Cornet, 3 ranks [old style]
183
8
  Gamba *
73
16
  Trumpet
73
8
  Gamba Celeste [TC] *
61
8
  Cornopean
73
8
  Salicional *
73
8
  Oboe [full-tone, old style]
73
8
  Salicional Celeste [TC] *
61
8
  Vox Humana (MF)
73
8
  Dolce *
73
    Tremolo  
8
  Dolce Celeste [TC] *
61
       
4
  Wald Flöte
73
* These seven stops to be voiced to blend as a "string choir"
               
Choir Organ (Manual I) – 61 notes (duplexed from Great and Swell)
8
  Geigen Principal
SW
8
  Viol d'Amour
GT
8
  Harmonic Flute
GT
4
  Wald Flöte
SW
8
  Zauber Flöte
GT
2
  Piccolo
GT
8
  Salicional
SW
4
  Clarinet
GT
8
  Salicional Celeste [TC]
SW
4
  Oboe d'Amore
GT
8
  Dolce
SW
8
  Vox Humana
SW
8
  Dolce Celeste [TC]
SW
       
               
Solo Organ – 61 notes, enclosed
("Playable at will from all four manuals and Pedal, without "interference." Couplers "draw through." Not duplexed. Pressure approximately 10"...extreme high pressure to be avoided.")
8
  Open Diapason
73
8
  Trumpet
73
8
  Grosse Flöte
73
8
  Clarinet
73
8
  Gamba
73
    Tremolo  
8
  Gamba Celeste [TC]
61
       
               
Echo Organ – 61 notes, enclosed
("Playable at will from all four manuals and Pedal, without "interference." Couplers "draw through." Not duplexed.)

8
  Fern Flöte
61
8
  Vox Humana
61
8
  Viol
61
    Tremolo  
8
  Viol Celeste [TC]
49
       
               
Percussion Organ (playable from any manual; Chimes also on Pedal)
   
Chimes [F, MF, P, PP]
20 notes
   
Harp
49 bars
    Play at will from all four manuals and Pedal. Dampers "On" and "Off". When "Pedal Divide" is drawn Chimes wired to Pedal only from C to E. Playable only one position at a time.     8' pitch only. Lowest octave duplicate of octave above, i.e., four foot C is lowest actual sound. Play at will from all four manuals and Pedal. Dampers "On" and "Off". Playable only one position at a time.
               
Pedal Organ – 30 notes
32
  Diapason [ext. GT 16']
12
16
  Grosse Flöte [ext. SO]
12
16
  Diapason
30
16
  Gamba [ext. SO]
12
16
  Diapason II
GT
8
  Diapason
GT
16
  Sub Bass [powerful "Bourdon"]
30
8
  Flute [ext. Sub Bass]
12
16
  Violone
30
8
  Gedeckt [ext. Bourdon]
SO
16
  Bourdon
30
16
  Trombone
30
16
  Lieblich Gedeckt
SW
16
  Trombone II [ext. SO]
12
               
Couplers (tilting tablets arranged in two rows above manuals)
    Pedal Divide     Solo-Echo to Great 8'
    Chimes     Solo-Echo to Swell 8'
    Harp     Swell to Choir 16', 8', 4'
    Choir to Pedal 8'     Solo-Echo to Choir 8'
    Great to Pedal 8'     Choir 16', 4', Unison Release
    Swell to Pedal 8', 4'     Swell 16', 4', Unison Release
    Solo-Echo to Pedal 8'     Great 16', 4', Unison Release
    Swell to Great 16, 8', 4'     Solo 16', 4', Unison Release
    Choir to Great 16', 8', 4'     Echo 16', 4' Unison Release
           
Stop Controls ("Registers not to move when pistons are used.")
    "Three pistons, to be located as per diagram to be submitted."
    Pistons only      
    Registers only      
    Both      
           
Ventils ("controlled by small old fashioned stop knobs located as directed, definitely cutting off wind supply from each division, for use in case of emergency, allowing any section of organ out of order to be silenced while balance of organ remains in commission.")
    Great Silent      
    Swell Silent      
    Echo Silent      
    Solo Silent      
    Pedal Silent      
           
Combination Pistons ("Combination board to be located as directed, not in console, and to be provided with glass cover with lock. Adjustable features as directed.")
    Six "Tutti" pistons affecting entire organ
    Six pistons affecting Swell and Pedal organs, Pedal Release
    Six pistons affecting Great and Pedal organs, Pedal Release
    Six pistons affecting Choir and Pedal organs, Pedal Release
    Three pistons affecting Solo and Pedal organs, Pedal Release
    Six pistons affecting Pedal
           
Pedal Movements
    Swell Pedal   Sforzando Pedal (reversible type)
    Great Pedal   Reversible Great to Pedal
    Solo Pedal   Reversible Solo to Pedal
    Echo Pedal    
    Crescendo Pedal    
               
  Austin Organ, Op. 53 (1901) in Central Presbyterian Church, Madison Avenue & 57th Street - New York City (Wurts Bros., 1928)
Organ in church at Madison Avenue and 57th Street:

Austin Organ Company
Hartford, Conn. – Opus 53 (1901)
Electro-pneumatic action
3 manuals, 30 stops




When the Central Presbyterian congregation moved to Madison Avenue and 57th Street, the Austin organ was moved from their previous church building at 220 West 57th Street. This organ was later sold to South Presbyterian Church, Dobbs Ferry, N.Y. Specifications for this organ have not yet been located.
               
Organ in church located at 220 West 57th Street:

Austin Organ Company
Hartford, Conn. – Opus 53 (1901)
Electro-pneumatic action
3 manuals, 30 stops


Specifications for this organ have not yet been located.
               
Organ in church located on Broome Street:

E. & G.G. Hook
Boston, Mass. – Opus 185 (1855)
Mechanical action
2 manuals, 26 registers, 18 stops, 18 ranks


The following specification was recorded by F.R. Webber, whose "Organ Scrapbooks" are in the possession of The Organ Historical Society Archives in Princeton, N.J. Webber notes "Musical World, June 2, 1855" under the list of stops.

     

     
Great Organ (Manual I) – 56 notes
8
  Open diapason [large scale]
56
2
  Fifteenth
56
8
  Stop diap. bass
17
4
  Flute
56
8
  Melodia treble
39
8
  Viol d'Amour [TC]
44
4
  Principal
56
8
  Trumpet bass
12
3
  Twelfth
56
8
  Trumpet treble
44
               
Swell Organ (Manual II) – 56 notes, enclosed
16
  Bourdon [TC]
44
8
  Trumpet [TC]
44
8
  Open diapason [TC]
44
8
  Hautboy [TC]
44
8
  Dulciana [TC]
44
    Tremulant  
8
  Stop'd diapason [TC]
44
    Swell Bass (outside box):  
4
  Principal [TC]
44
16
  Bourdon [C1-B12]
12
    Cornet, 2 ranks [TC]
88
8
  Dulciana [C1-B12]
12
               
Pedal Organ – 25 notes
16
  Double open diapason
25
       
               
Couplers
    Swell to Great          
    Swell bass to Pedal          
    Great to Pedal          
               
Sources:
     Aeolian-Skinner Archives web site: http://aeolian-skinner.110mb.com
     American Musical Directory. New York: Thomas Hutchinson, 1861.
     Buhrman, T. Scott. "Console Analysis," The American Organist (Oct. 1950). Specifications of M.P. Möller Organ, Op. 8000 (1950).
     Central Presbyterian Church web site: http://www.centralonpark.org/
     Dunlap, David W. From Abyssinian to Zion: A Guide to Manhattan's Houses of Worship. New York: Columbia University Press, 2004.
     Kinzey, Allen, and Sand Lawn, comps. E.M. Skinner/Aeolian-Skinner Opus List. New Rev. Ed. Richmond: The Organ Historical Society, 1997.
     Nelson, George, comp. Organs in the United States and Canada Database. Seattle, Wash.
     "Old Church Goes Out of Existence," The New York Times (Feb. 28, 1915).
     Rockefeller Archive Center, Pocantico Hills, N.Y. Factory Contract with Specifications of Hook & Hastings organ, Op. 2455 (1922). Courtesy Michele Hiltzik, Archivist.
     Trupiano, Larry. Factory Specifications (July 22, 1941) of Aeolian-Skinner organ, Op. 1027.
     Van Pelt, William T. The Hook Opus List, 1829-1916 in Facsimile. Richmond: The Organ Historical Society, 1991.
     Webber, F.R. "Organ scrapbook" at Organ Historical Society Archives, Princeton, N.J. Specifications of E. & G.G. Hook organ, Op. 185 (1855). Courtesy Jonathan Bowen.

Illustrations:
     The American Organist (Oct. 1950). Console (b&w) of M.P. Möller organ, Op. 8000 (1950).
     M.P. Möller Co. brochure. Console (b&w) of M.P. Möller organ, Op. 8000 (1950). Courtesy Jeff Scofield.
     Organ Historical Society Archives. Console (b&w) of M.P. Möller organ, Op. 8000 (1950). Courtesy James Lewis.
     Scofield, Jeff. Console (color) of M.P. Möller organ, Op. 8000 (1950).
     Ritchie, Roger J. Interior.
     The Riverside Church Archives. Chancel of Park Avenue Baptist Church. Courtesy Victor A. Jordan, Archivist.
     Wurts Bros. (New York, N.Y.), 1928. Exterior; interior; and gallery (1928) showing Austin Organ, Op. 53 (1901) in Central Presbyterian Church, Madison Avenue & 57th Street.