The Episcopal Church of St. Mary the Virgin - New York City
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Church of St. Mary the Virgin
(Episcopal)

145 West 46th Street
New York, N.Y. 10036
http://www.stmvirgin.org


Organ Specifications:
145 West 46th Street (since 1895)
Church
IV/93 Aeolian-Skinner Organ Co., rev. (2002)
IV/81 Aeolian-Skinner Organ Co., Op. 891-A (1942)
IV/59 Aeolian-Skinner Organ Co., Op. 891 (1932)
III/33 George Jardine & Son, Op. 1139 (1896)
St. Joseph's Hall
II/8 Martin Bohling, Op. 1 (1960s)
II/6 Casavant Frères, Op. 1498 (1934)
• George Jardine & Son (c.1895)
228 West 45th Street (1870-1895)
II/20 George Jardine & Son (1886)
• Unknown Builder (1870)

See also the Ernest White Studio.


The Society of the Free Church of Saint Mary the Virgin in the City of New York was incorporated on December 3, 1868. Father Thomas McKee Brown had the vision to build a church in New York City dedicated to expressing the full witness of Catholic thought in ritual and teaching within the Episcopal Church. A year after his ordination, Father Brown brought his plan to Bishop Potter, who suggested that a church was needed near Longacre Square (renamed Times Square in 1905) on the west side of what is now Midtown. John Jacob Astor gave three lots on West 45th Street between Seventh and Eighth Avenues, “stipulating that the Church should be free, and positively orthodox in management and working.”

45th Street location (1870-1895) of the Church of St. Mary the Virgin - New York City  
228 W. 45th St. (1870-1895)  
On April 6, 1868, the cornerstone was laid for the first church, located at 228 West 45th Street (today the site of the Booth Theatre). The rector and trustees named the church for Saint Mary the Virgin, the Blessed Mother of Jesus, openly challenging one of the uglier anti-Catholic prejudices of the day, and making no mistake that this was to be an Episcopal Church in the full Catholic tradition. The first church was designed by William Hallet, and was dedicated on December 8, 1870 (the Feast of the Conception of the Blessed Virgin Mary). Bishop Potter was unable to officiate at the service, perhaps due to his ambivalent if not negative views on Saint Mary’s, and his place was taken by the Rt. Rev. Horatio Southgate, the Episcopal Church’s former missionary bishop to the Ottoman Empire.

Father Brown spared no expense in celebrating the Eucharist with full ritual, including a choir of 40 voices and a small orchestra. At a time when the principal service in Episcopal churches was Morning Prayer with the Eucharist only celebrated four times a year, Father Brown, heeding the Tractarian view that “it is the Mass that matters,” moved quickly from celebrating the Eucharist every Sunday to celebrating it every day.

By 1890, the congregation had outgrown the church on West 45th Street. In 1892, the late Miss Sara L. Cooke, a member of the parish, left the church a legacy that eventually amounted to $700,000, in addition to real estate. Father Brown and the other trustees decided to use this legacy to fund a new church on an eight-lot parcel running through from 46th to 47th Streets. The new complex was to include a Rectory at the 47th Street end of the lot, a Clergy House (for curates and assistants), and Mission House (for the Sisters). The style would be French Gothic, with a church seating 800 persons.

c.1910 photo of the Church of St. Mary the Virgin - New York City (The Architectural Record, May 1910)  
The architectural firm of Napoleon LeBrun & Sons was hired to design the new church. In order to place all the buildings and a church with a lofty interior on the lot, the trustees accepted LeBrun’s recommendation to consider a novel construction method never before tried on a building of such size. LeBrun proposed using a skeleton of iron beams that would bear the weight but create little bulk. LeBrun used cut stone to face the exterior portions which would be visible from the street, and brick was used for the work that would be obscured by the other buildings in the cluster.

  Church of St. Mary the Virgin - New York City
The cornerstone for the new church was laid on December 8, 1894. The completed church was to be 60 feet wide and 180 feet long, and the nave was to be 80 feet from floor to ceiling and 46 feet wide, surrounded on the east and west sides by 22 stone piers forming the interior support for the clerestory. Outside the piers, on each side, was to be an ambulatory 6 feet wide. The chancel, at the north end of the building, was to be 48 feet deep, terminating with the marble high altar moved from the former church.

Church of St. Mary the Virgin - New York City (photo: Steven E. Lawson)  
Today, St. Mary the Virgin is widely-known for its solemn liturgies with pageantry, supported by glorious choral and organ music in the reverberant church. Due to the copious use of incense, the church is fondly and irreverently known as "Smoky Mary's." In 1996-97, the interior of the church was redecorated with vivid colors, including cobalt blue vaulting with gold stars.

See also the Ernest White Studio, a page containing information about the organs installed in the Parish House during the tenure of Ernest White, who was for 25 years associated with the Church of St. Mary the Virgin as organist and choirmaster.
               
 

Aeolian-Skinner Organ, Op. 891 (1932) at Church of St. Mary the Virgin - New York City (photo: John Rust)

Aeolian-Skinner Organ Company, Inc.
Boston, Mass. – Opus 891 (1932), 891-A (1942)
Revised by Mann & Trupiano (1988-2002)
Electro-pneumatic action
4 manuals, 93 stops, 93 ranks

               
Holtkamp Console in Chancel of St. Mary the Virgin Episcopal Church - New York City (John Rust)  
Chancel console  
 

Aeolian-Skinner Organ, Op. 891 (1932) at Church of St. Mary the Virgin - New York City (photo: John Rust)

  Rebuilt gallery console
The 1995 rebuilding and addition of 17 ranks were made by Mann & Trupiano of Brooklyn, under the direction of Lawrence Trupiano, and with the assistance of many others. The original four-manual Aeolian-Skinner console was completely rebuilt with new drawknobs and keyboards; it was relocated to the chancel but later returned to the rear gallery. A rebuilt three-manual Holtkamp console that can control most of the organ was added in the chancel. From 1988-2002, a total of 32 ranks were added to the organ. An 8' Bassoon was added to the Positif Division in 2008.
               
Great Organ (Manual II) – 61 notes
32
  Salicional [TC]
PO
4
  Flûte couverte
61
16
  Principal
61
3 1/5
  Grosse Tierce
61
8
  Montre
61
2 2/3
  Octave Quinte
61
8
  Diapason *
61
2
  Doublette
61
8
  Flûte harmonique *
61
2
  Fourniture III-V ranks
245
8
  Bourdon 
61
1
  Cymbale III ranks
183
8
  Violoncelle *
61
2
  Harmonics V ranks
305
5 1/3
  Grosse Quinte
61
8
  Trompette harmonique
BO
4
  Prestant
61
 
     

     

     
Swell Organ (Manual III) – 61 notes, enclosed
16
  Flûte conique
73
2
  Plein jeu V ranks
305
8
  Principal
73
2 2/3
  Cornet III ranks
183
8
  Bourdon à cheminée
73
16
  Bombarde
73
8
  Salicional
73
8
  Trompette
73
8
  Voix céleste
73
8
  Hautbois
73
8
  Viole sourdine
73
8
  Voix humaine
73
4
  Prestant
73
4
  Clairon
73
4
  Flûte courte
73
  Tremolo
2 2/3
  Nasard
61
 
  Swell 16'
2
  Octavin
61
 
  Unison Off  
1 3/5
  Tierce *
54
  Swell 4'  

     

     
Positif Organ (Manual I) – 61 notes, enclosed
16
  Salicional
73
2 2/3
  Plein jeu IV ranks
244
8
  Principal *
73
16
  Musette
73
8
  Flûte traversière
73
8
  Trompette *
73
8
  Gambe
73
8
  Cromorne
73
8
  Gambe céleste
73
8
  Clarinette
73
4
  Prestant *
73
8
  Bassoon [added 2008]
61
4
  Flûte d'amour
73
4
  Chalumeau
73
4
  Gemshorn
73
  Tremolo
2 2/3
  Nasard
73
  Positif 16'
2
  Piccolo
61
 
  Unison Off  
1 3/5
  Tierce
61
  Positif 4'  
1 1/3
  Larigot
61
  Cloche fou (Zimbelstern)  

   

     
Bombarde Organ (Manual IV) – 61 notes
16
 
Violonbasse [Contre basse]
PED
16
  Bombarde *
73
8
  Diapason
GT
8
  Trompette harmonique *
73
8
  Flûte harmonique
GT
4
  Clairon harmonique *
73
8
 
Viole [ext. PED Contre basse]
17
    Tremolo  
8
 
Viole Celeste
preparation
    Bombarde 16'  
  Mounted Cornet V ranks * [A-d2]
150
    Unison Off  
          Bombarde 4'  

Grand Choeur Organ (floating)


16
  Trompette [TC]
4
  Trompette [49 notes]
8
  Trompette *
61
       

     

     
Pedal Organ – 32 notes
32
  Resultant
4
  Flûte conique
24
16
  Flûte ouverte *
32
4
  Salicional
24
16
  Contre basse [unit]
56
5 1/3
  Fourniture IV ranks
128
16
  Principal
GT
2 2/3
  Carillon II ranks [Fourniture]
16
  Bourdon [unit] *
44
32
  Grand Cornet IV ranks
128
16
  Flûte conique
SW
32
  Bombarde [unit, 1-12*]
68
16
  Salicional
PO
16
  Bombarde
10 2/3
 
Grosse Quinte [Gross Cornet]
16
  Bombarde
SW
8
  Diapason
GT
16
  Musette
PO
8
  Contre basse
8
  Trompette harmonique
BO
8
  Bourdon
8
  Trompette
8
  Flûte conique
SW
8
  Musette
PO
8
  Salicional
PO
4
  Clairon
4
  Doublette [from Fourniture]
4
  Musette
PO
4
  Contre basse
 
     

     

 
* new pipes installed 1988-2002
Couplers
    Swell to Pedal 8', 4'   Bombarde to Swell 8'
    Great to Pedal 8'   Grand Choeur to Swell 8'
    Positif to Pedal 8', 4'   Great to Positif 8'
    Bombarde to Pedal 8', 4'   Swell to Positif 8', 4'
    Grand Choeur to Pedal 8'   Bombarde to Positif 8'
    Swell to Great 16', 8', 4'   Grand Choeur to Positif 8'
    Positif to Great 16', 8', 4'   Great to Bombarde 8'
    Bombarde to Great 16', 8', 4'   Swell to Bombarde 8'
    Grand Choeur to Great 8'   Positif to Bombarde 8'
               
Reversibles
    Swell to Pedal (thumb & toe)   Swell to Positif (thumb)
    Great to Pedal (thumb & toe)   Bombarde to Positif (thumb)
    Positif to Pedal (thumb & toe)   Great to Bombarde (thumb)
    Bombarde to Pedal (thumb & toe)   Swell to Bombarde (thumb)
    Swell to Great (thumb)   Positif to Bombarde (thumb)
    Positif to Great (thumb)   16' Manual Stops Off (thumb)
    Bombarde to Great (thumb)   32' Pedal Stops Off (thumb & toe)
    Bombarde to Swell (thumb)   Sforzando (thumb & toe)
               
Adjustable Combinations
   
Bombarde Organ Pistons 1-2-3-4-0 (thumb)
Swell Organ Pistons 1-2-3-4-5-6-7-8-0 (thumb)
Great Organ Pistons 1-2-3-4-5-6-7-8-0 (thumb)
Positif Organ Pistons 1-2-3-4-5-6-7-8-0 (thumb)
Pedal Organ Pistons 1-2-3-4-5-6-7-8-0 (thumb); 2-8 (toe) [Pedal 1 stud became NEXT]
General Pistons 1-2-3-4-5-6-7-8-9-10-11-12 (thumb & toe)
General Pistons 13-14-15-16-17-18-19-20 (thumb)
  General Cancel (thumb)
  Set (thumb)
               
Piston Sequencer
    + (Next) Piston (toe) – replaced Pedal 1 toe stud      
               
Mechanicals
    Swell Expression   Bombarde Exp. to Swell Pedal
    Positif Expression   Bombarde Exp. to Positif Pedal
    Bombarde Expression   Necessary indicators
    Crescendo Pedal    
               
  Aeolian-Skinner Organ, Op. 891-A (1942) in St. Mary the Virgin - New York City
  Mitred 32' Euphone pipes at back
Aeolian-Skinner Organ Company, Inc.
Boston, Mass. – Opus 891-A (1942)
Electro-pneumatic action
4 manuals, 70 stops, 81 ranks, 5,011 pipes





Extensive revisions and several additions were made in 1942 by G. Donald Harrison as Aeolian-Skinner's Opus 891-A, under the influence of then-organist Ernest White. Further tonal alterations were made later by Ernest White and others. One notable addition was the Euphone, a free-reed stop rescued from the Frank Roosevelt organ (1889, Op. 400) built for the Chicago Auditorium Theatre. Installed about 1949 by Larry Phelps of Aeolian-Skinner, the Euphone was available at 16' pitch on the Great with a 12-note 32' extension in the Pedal. According to G. Donald Harrison, the Euphone (seen in the photo at right) "proved to be very disappointing and unreliable." The Euphone was ultimately removed (c.1995) and the Pedal 16' Bombarde was extended to 32' by 12 new full-length pipes.

Following are the specifications of the organ as revised in 1942 by the Aeolian-Skinner Organ Company, but showing the 32-16 Euphone unit.
             
Great Organ (Manual II) – 61 notes
16
  Principal
61
3 1/5
  Grosse Tierce
61
16
  Quintaton [unit]
73
2 2/3
  Octave Quinte
61
8
  Principal
61
2
  Doublette
61
8
  Bourdon
61
    Fourniture III-V ranks
245
8
  Quintaton
    Cymbale III ranks
183
5 1/3
  Quint
61
    Harmonics V ranks
305
4
  Prestant
61
16
  Euphone
61
4
  Flute Couverte
61
       

     

     
Swell Organ (Manual III) – 61 notes, enclosed
16
  Flute Conique
73
    Plein Jeu V ranks
305
8
  Geigen Diapason
73
    Cornet III ranks
183
8
  Bourdon à Cheminee
73
16
  Bombarde
73
8
  Salicional
73
8
  Trompette
73
8
  Voix C éleste
73
8
  Oboe
73
8
  Viole Sourdine II ranks
146
8
  Vox Humana
73
4
  Prestant
73
4
  Clairon
73
4
  Flute Courte
73
    Tremolo  
4
  Salicet
73
 
  Swell 16'  
2 2/3
  Nazard
61
 
  Unison Off  
2
  Salicetina
61
    Swell 4'  

     

     
Positif Organ (Manual I) – 61 notes, enclosed
16
  Salicional
73
1 3/5
  Tierce
61
8
  Flute Traversiere
73
1 1/3
  Larigot
61
8
  Gamba
73
    Cymbale IV ranks
244
8
  Gamba Celeste
73
16
  Musette
73
8
  Viole
73
8
  Clarinet
73
8
  Viole Celeste
73
8
  Cromorne
73
8
  Spitzflöte
73
4
  Chalumeau
73
4
  Gemshorn
73
    Tremolo  
4
  Flute d'Amour
73
 
  Positif 16'  
2 2/3
  Nazard
61
 
  Unison Off  
2
  Piccolo
61
    Positif 4'  

     

     
Bombarde Organ (Manual IV) – 61 notes, enclosed
8
 
Viole
preparation
4
 
Clairon Harmonique
preparation
8
 
Viole Celeste
preparation
   
Tremolo
preparation
8
 
Orchestral Flute
preparation
    Bombarde 16'  
   
Grande Fourniture VII rks
prep.

  Unison Off  
16
 
Bombarde
preparation
    Bombarde 4'  
8
 
Trompette Harmonique
preparation
       
               
Pedal Organ – 32 notes
16
  Contre Basse [unit]
56
    Fourniture IV ranks
128
16
  Quintaton
GT
    Carillon II rks [Fourniture]
16
  Diapason
GT
    Grande Cornet IV ranks
128
16
  Salicional
PO
32
  Euphone [ext. GT]
12
16
  Flute Conique
SW
16
  Bombarde [unit]
56
8
  Contre Basse
16
  Basson
GT
8
  Quintaton
GT
16
  Musette
PO
8
  Flute Conique
SW
8
  Trompette
8
  Salicional
PO
8
  Musette
PO
4
  Contre Basse
4
  Clairon
4
  Quintaton
GT
4
  Clarion
BO
4
  Salicional
PO
4
  Musette
PO
2
  Quintaton
GT
       
               
Couplers
    Swell to Pedal 8', 4'   Bombarde to Swell 8'
    Great to Pedal 8'   Swell to Positif 16', 8', 4'
    Positif to Pedal 8', 4'   Bombarde to Positif 8'
    Bombarde to Pedal 8', 4'   Great to Bombarde 8'
    Swell to Great 16', 8', 4'   Swell to Bombarde 8'
    Positif to Great 16', 8', 4'   Positif to Bombarde 8'
    Bombarde to Great 16', 8', 4'    
               
Reversibles
    Swell to Pedal (thumb)   Swell to Positif (thumb)
    Great to Pedal (thumb & toe)   Bombarde to Positif (thumb)
    Positif to Pedal (thumb)   Great to Bombarde (thumb)
    Bombarde to Pedal (thumb)   Swell to Bombarde (thumb)
    Swell to Great (thumb)   Positif to Bombarde (thumb)
    Positif to Great (thumb)   16' Manual Stops Off (thumb)
    Bombarde to Great (thumb)   32' Pedal Stops Off (thumb)
    Bombarde to Swell (thumb)   Sforzando (thumb & toe)
               
Adjustable Combinations
   
Bombarde Organ Pistons 1-2-3-4-0 (thumb)  
Swell Organ Pistons 1-2-3-4-5-6-7-8-0 (thumb)  
Great Organ Pistons 1-2-3-4-5-6-7-8-0 (thumb) Pedal to GT Combs. Dbl. Touch
Positif Organ Pistons 1-2-3-4-5-6-7-8-0 (thumb)  
Pedal Organ Pistons 1-2-3-4-5-6-7-8-0 (thumb & toe)
General Pistons 1-2-3-4-5-6-7-8 (thumb & toe)  
  General Cancel (thumb)  
               
Mechanicals
    Swell Expression   Bombarde Exp. to Swell Pedal
    Positif Expression   Bombarde Exp. to Positif Pedal
    Bombarde Expression   Combination setter
    Crescendo Pedal   Lock for Combination piston setter
    Necessary indicators   Adjustable bench with back
             
  Aeolian-Skinner Organ, Op. 891 (1932) in St. Mary the Virgin - New York City
  Photo (c.1940) by Ernest White
Aeolian-Skinner Organ Company, Inc.
Boston, Mass. – Opus 891 (1932)
Electro-pneumatic action
4 manuals, 54 stops, 59 ranks, 2,908 pipes





The Aeolian-Skinner organ now in the gallery was installed in 1932, the work of G. Donald Harrison of the Aeolian-Skinner Organ Company. Planning for a new organ dates back to at least May 1929, when the church submitted a plan and photo to Ernest M. Skinner, then head of the Skinner Organ Company. Several months later, Skinner sent a proposed case design (see below). Although the old Jardine organ had been on its "last legs" for many years, the delay in its replacement was primarily due to a lack of financial resources. Finally, at the March 14, 1932 meeting of the Board of Trustees, the Rector announced that G. Donald Harrison of Aeolian-Skinner had offered to build a new organ having four manuals and 86 ranks, but could install the first portion (59 ranks) for a consideration of $25,000 (which was $3,000 less than a proposal offered in 1930). Despite the Treasurer's concerns about the "general conditions of business and finance" brought on by the Great Depression, this was a very good price and the Trustees agreed to proceed, with installation to take place during the summer months. It was further agreed to postpone construction of an organ case, a cost-saving suggestion made by Raymond Nold, Organist & Director of Music. (As of 2012, the organ still lacks a proper case, yet it is hoped that someday funds will become available.) Finally, on April 29, 1932, the contract between Aeolian-Skinner and the Trustees was signed, with Aeolian-Skinner indicating that the organ would be completed by October 9, 1932. The total cost was $28,884 (less a $125 allowance for the old gallery organ and blower), which included removal of the old organ and platform, construction of a new platform and necessary wind and electrical conduits, lighting in the organ area, and preparation of the blower room. Perhaps most importantly, the contract stated that "the organ shall be built under the exclusive supervision of Mr. G. Donald Harrison, especially as regards the tonal ideas."

It should be noted that in January 1932, the Skinner Organ Company had merged with (or "bought out the competition" of) the pipe organ division of the Aeolian Company of Garwood, N.J., a firm best known for its residence organs, forming the Aeolian-Skinner Organ Company. Although both Ernest M. Skinner and G. Donald Harrison were designing organs for the new company, many clients were favoring the specifications by Harrison that were a profound departure from the orchestral tonal palette espoused by Skinner. Harrison had recently completed a notable organ (1931, Op. 851) in Trinity College Chapel, Hartford, Conn., that incorporated a lighter and brighter Choir division on low wind pressure, and a fairly small-scaled metal 32' Bombarde in the Pedal, rather than the large-scaled wood Bombarde that Skinner preferred. The Trinity Chapel organ was a turning point in Harrison's career.

The new organ for St. Mary the Virgin would take Harrison's ideas a few steps further. Raymond Nold, organist of the church, collaborated with Harrison to design an organ that marked "a return to the principles of the classic organ, the organ of the Thomas-Kirche, and the older French and German Builders." Toward that goal, the typical Choir division was replaced by a Positif, and a brilliant Bombarde division would take the place of an orchestral Solo organ. Nold's notes in the Dedication Program stated that emphasis was placed on ensemble, the curbing of 8' Diapason tone and enormous increase in upperwork, transparent French reeds instead of opaque "modern" reeds, and a metal 16' Principal in the Pedal rather than a booming open-wood Diapason. He went on to say, "An interesting detail of the scheme is the Flûte Conique in the Swell organ having, as a distinguished authority remarked, all the good qualities of the Bourdon with none of its faults. In the Pedal organ a Flûte Ouverte, with its clear and beautiful tone, replaces the more usual and commonplace Bourdon." The organ at St. Mary's was Harrison's official start of the "Classical Revival" and the first of his instruments to be called an "American Classic" organ, a term coined by Sen. Emerson Richards. Much has been written about Mr. Skinner's outspoken objections to Harrison's radical designs, scaling, and reeds.

Due to inevitable delays and perhaps detailed attention to voicing, the first phase of the organ was not completed until January 1933. At last, the highly anticipated organ was dedicated at 8:30 pm on Wednesday, January 11th, in a recital performed by Palmer Christian, eminent Professor of Organ and University Organist of the University of Michigan. Christian's program included works by Benedetto Marcello, Arcangelo Corelli, J.S. Bach, Philip James, Karl Weigl, Jean Huré, Sigfrid Karg-Elert, Joseph Jongen, Max Reger, and Charles-Marie Widor. A few weeks later, a series of four recitals was played by Ernest White, who would become organist of the church in a few years. In 1934 recitals were given by Hugh Porter and E. Power Biggs, and in the fall of that year a series of eight recitals (arranged by Raymond Nold and impresario Bernard LaBerge) was played to a packed church by Günther Ramin, Charles M. Courboin, Winslow Cheney, Carl Weinrich, Virgil Fox, Charlotte Lockwood, E. Power Biggs, and Palmer Christian.

Proposed case of Aeolian-Skinner Organ, Op. 891 (1932) in St. Mary the Virgin - New York City

Proposed case by G. Donald Harrison for Aeolian-Skinner Organ, Op. 891 (1932) in St. Mary the Virgin - New York City
Proposed Case by Skinner Organ Co.
(Sept. 8, 1929)
 
Proposed Case by G. Donald Harrison
(1930s)

Following are the specifications of Aeolian-Skinner Opus 891 as it was originally designed and installed in 1932:
               
Great Organ (Manual II) – 61 notes
16
  Principal
61
4
 
Flute Ouverte
preparation
8
  Principal
61
3 1/5
  Grosse Tierce
61
8
 
Diapason
preparation
2 2/3
  Octave Quinte
61
8
 
Flute Harmonique
preparation
2
  Doublette
61
8
 
Gemshorn
preparation
    Harmonics V  ranks
305
5 1/3
  Quint
61
16
  Double Trumpet
BO
4
  Principal
61
8
  Trumpet
BO
4
 
Octave
preparation
4
  Clarion
BO

     

     
Swell Organ (Manual III) – 61 notes, enclosed
16
  Flute Conique
73
    Plein Jeu V ranks
305
8
  Principal
73
    Sesquialtera IV ranks
244
8
  Rohrflöte
73
16
  Bombarde
73
8
  Salicional
73
8
  Trompette
73
8
  Voix Celeste
73
8
  Oboe
73
8
  Viole Sourdine
73
8
  Vox Humana
73
8
  Voix Eolienne
73
4
  Clairon
73
4
  Octave
73
    Tremolo  
4
  Flute Triangulaire
73
 
  Swell 16'  
4
  Salicet
73
 
  Unison Off  
2
  Salicetina
61
    Swell 4'  

     

     
Choir Organ (Manual I) – 61 notes, enclosed
16
  Salicional
73
1 1/3
  Larigot
61
8
  Geigen Principal
73
    Sesquialtera V ranks
305
8
  Flute Traversiere
73
16
 
Contra Fagotto
preparation
8
  Viole
73
8
  Trumpet
73
8
  Viole Celeste
73
8
 
Clarinet
73
8
  Spitzflöte
73
4
 
Clarion
preparation
8
  Gemshorn
73
    Tremolo  
4
  Flute d'Amour
73
    Choir 16'  
2 2/3
  Nazard
73
 
  Unison Off  
2
  Piccolo
61
    Choir 4'  
1 3/5
  Tierce
61
       
               
Bombarde Organ (Manual IV) – 61 notes, enclosed
8
 
Viole
preparation
4
 
Clarion
preparation
8
 
Viole Celeste
preparation
   
Tremolo
preparation
8
 
Orchestral Flute
preparation
    Bombarde 16'  
   
Grande Fourniture VII rks
prep.

  Unison Off  
16
 
Double Trumpet
preparation
    Bombarde 4'  
8
 
Trumpet
preparation
       
               
Pedal Organ – 32 notes
16
  Principal [unit]
56
4
  Flute
16
 
Contre Basse
preparation
2
  Flute
16
  Flute Ouverte [unit]
68
   
Harmonics IV ranks
preparation
16
  Diapason
GT
32
 
Contre Bombarde
preparation
16
  Salicional
CH
16
  Bombarde [unit]
56
16
  Spitzflöte
SW
16
  Double Trumpet
BO
10 2/3
 
Quint
preparation
16
  Fagotto
CH
8
  Octave
8
  Trompette
8
  Flute
8
  Trumpet
BO
8
 
Violoncello
preparation
8
  Fagotto
CH
6 2/5
 
Grosse Tierce
preparation
4
  Clairon
5 1/3
 
Octave Quinte
preparation
4
  Clarion
BO
4
  Doublette
4
  Fagotto
CH
               
Couplers
    Swell to Pedal 8', 4'   Bombarde to Swell 8'
    Great to Pedal 8'   Swell to Choir 16', 8', 4'
    Choir to Pedal 8', 4'   Bombarde to Choir 8'
    Bombarde to Pedal 8', 4'   Great to Bombarde 8'
    Swell to Great 16', 8', 4'   Swell to Bombarde 8'
    Choir to Great 16', 8', 4'   Choir to Bombarde 8'
    Bombarde to Great 16', 8', 4'    
               
Reversibles
    Swell to Pedal (thumb)   Swell to Choir (thumb)
    Great to Pedal (thumb & toe)   Bombarde to Choir (thumb)
    Choir to Pedal (thumb)   Great to Bombarde (thumb)
    Bombarde to Pedal (thumb)   Swell to Bombarde (thumb)
    Swell to Great (thumb)   Choir to Bombarde (thumb)
    Choir to Great (thumb)   16' Manual Stops Off (thumb)
    Bombarde to Great (thumb)   32' Pedal Stops Off (thumb)
    Bombarde to Swell (thumb)   Sforzando (thumb & toe)
               
Adjustable Combinations
   
Bombarde Organ Pistons 1-2-3-4-0 (thumb)  
Swell Organ Pistons 1-2-3-4-5-6-7-8-0 (thumb)  
Great Organ Pistons 1-2-3-4-5-6-7-8-0 (thumb) Pedal to GT Combs. Dbl. Touch
Choir Organ Pistons 1-2-3-4-5-6-7-8-0 (thumb)  
Pedal Organ Pistons 1-2-3-4-5-6-7-8-0 (thumb & toe)
General Pistons 1-2-3-4-5-6-7-8 (thumb & toe)  
  General Cancel (thumb)  
               
Mechanicals
    Swell Expression   Bombarde Exp. to Swell Pedal
    Choir Expression   Bombarde Exp. to Choir Pedal
    Bombarde Expression   Combination setter
    Crescendo Pedal   Lock for Combination piston setter
    Necessary indicators   Adjustable bench with back
             
Original organ in present building:

George Jardine & Son
New York City – Opus 1139 (1896)
Electro-pneumatic action
3 manuals, 34 stops, 33 ranks
Two consoles (gallery and chancel)


The first organ in the present edifice was the work of George Jardine & Son of New York City. In fact, Jardine used their 1886 instrument from the previous church as the nucleus of a redesigned organ that was enlarged from two to three manuals and equipped with electric action. Most of the organ was installed in the rear gallery, but the Choir division was enclosed in a chamber above the right side of the chancel. Two consoles were provided: one in the gallery and one in the chancel. Unfortunately, the novel use of electricity proved unreliable after a few years and the organ became mechanically unreliable.

This organ created quite a stir, as reported in the Musical Courier (Dec. 18, 1895):
"The new Jardine organ in St. Mary the Virgin's Church, New York City, which has just been completed, is one of the remarkable organs ever built. The great, swell and pedal organs are located up in the gallery, and the choir organ at the other end of the church, over the altar, at a distance of 200 feet. There is a console up in the gallery, also one at the chancel end, each equipped with three manuals, with the full number of stops, couplers and accessories, and playable at either point. It is built entirely on the electro-pneumatic system. The touch of the keys is as easy and quick as that of a piano. The bellows are in the crypt, driven by two powerful electric motors. The organ embraces all the new and most improved features, many of which have been lately introduced by Mr. Jardine from Europe. The organ contains 60 stops and accessories, five of the stops being of 16 foot tone. The organ was opened last Sunday by Dr. Geo. F. Prentice, organist of the church, and all those who heard it pronounced it one of the finest instruments ever built, especially in its deep foundation tones, exquisite solo stops and the many facilities enabling the organist to produce with ease every variety of tonal effect."

An item about the first public recital appeared in Musical Courier (Feb. 12, 1896):

"On Sunday evening last February 9, the first recital on the new electric organs built by George Jardine & Sons, in the church of St. Mary the Virgin, West Forty-sixth street, was given. A large number of New York's leading musicians assembled to do honor to the occasion, and several prominent organists played, among them being Geo. B. Prentiss, Mus. Doc., Gerrit Smith, Mus. Doc., H.B. Taylor, William Edward Mulligan, and Mr. Edward G. Jardine, who was heard in a composition, Thunderstorm, of his own. The program was interestingly arranged and brilliantly performed, making of the event a completely auspicious one in organ annals."

The following specification is from an organ notebook of Lynnwood Farnam (1885-1930), concert organist of the early 20th century.

               
Great Organ (Manual II) – 58 notes
16
  Double Open Diapason
58
4
  Octave
58
8
  Open Diapason
58
4
  Harmonic Flute
58
8
  Doppel Flöte (wood)
58
2
  Piccolo
58
8
  Melodia (wood)
58
8
  Clarinet [TC]
46
8
  Viola di Gamba
58
       
               
Swell Organ (Manual III) – 58 notes, enclosed
8
  Open Diapason
58
2
  Flageolet
58
8
  Lieblich Gedeckt (wood)
58
    Cornet, 2 ranks
116
8
  Clariana
58
8
  Trumpet [TC]
46
8
  Aeoline
58
8
  Bassoon [bass]
12
4
  Violina
58
8
  Choir Oboe
58
               
Choir Organ (Manual I) – 58 notes, enclosed [located in chancel chamber]
16
  Bourdon Bass (wood)
12
4
  Octave
58
16
  Bourdon Treble (wood) [TC]
46
4
  Boehm Flute
58
8
  Open Diapason
58
2 2/3
  Quintina
58
8
  Salicional
58
2
  Super Octave
58
8
  Dolce
58
8
  Vox Humana
58
8
  Gross Flute (wood)
58
       
               
Pedal Organ – 30 notes
16
  Open Diapason (wood)
30
8
  Violoncello
30
16
  Bourdon (wood, in chancel)
30
16
  Trombone
30
               
Couplers, &c (stops over Swell)
    Pedal at Octaves       Swell to Chancel  
    Swell to Pedal       Chancel to Great Sub  
    Great to Pedal       Swell to Great Octave  
    Chancel to Pedal       Swell Tremulant *  
    Swell to Great       Chancel Tremulant *  
    Chancel to Great       Stop Switch *  
           
* stops on left
Accessories
    2 composition pedals to Chancel     Balanced swell to Swell
    2 composition pedals to Swell     Balanced swell to Chancel
    2 composition pedals to Great        
               
Organ in St. Joseph's Hall of present building:

Martin Bohling
New York City – Opus 1 (1960s)
Direct-electric action
2 manuals, 26 stops, 8 ranks


In the 1960s, an organ was built for St. Joseph's Hall by Martin Bohling, who was the organ curator at the time. Bohling's Opus 1 had eight unified ranks on direct-electric action. At an unknown time the organ was moved to St. Mark's Episcopal Church in Teaneck, N.J.
               
Hauptwerk (Manual I) – 56 notes
8
  Prestant  
2 2/3
  Nasat [TC]  
8
  Gedackt  
2
  Rohr Floete  
4
  Praestant       Mixtur III ranks  
4
  Gedackt  
16
  Krumm Horn  
               
Positiv (Manual II) – 56 notes
8
  Gedackt  
1 1/3
  Larigot  
4
  Praestant  
1
  Sifflet  
4
  Rohr Floete [1-12 Ged.]       Scharf II ranks [Mixtur 8ve]  
2
  Praestant  
8
  Krumm Horn  
               
Pedal Organ – 32 notes
16
  Gedackt  
2
  Rohr Floete  
8
  Praestant       Mixtur III ranks  
8
  Gedackt  
16
  Krumm Horn  
4
  Praestant  
8
  Krumm Horn  
4
  Gedackt  
4
  Krumm Horn  
               
Stop Analysis
     
Pipes
16
  Gedackt
80
8
  Praestant
80
2
  Rohr Floete
61
1 1/3
  Larigot
56
    Mixtur [22-26-29]
168
16
  Krumm Horn
    68
   
Total
513
               
Organ in St. Joseph's Hall and Theatre of present building:

Casavant Frères, Limitée
St. Hyacinthe, Québec, Canada – Opus 1498 (1934)
Electro-pneumatic action
2 manuals, 26 stops, 6 ranks


The second organ in St. Joseph's Hall was built in 1934 by Casavant Frères for the Paul A. Fancher residence in Clinton, N.Y. In 1945, Mr. Fancher donated the organ to the church, in memory of his wife, Edith. The organ had two manuals and six unified ranks, and was entirely enclosed (except for the 8' Open Diapason on the Great). At some point, the organ was moved to the theatre on the second floor of the parish house. In 1992, the organ was sold to a private individual in Canada.
               
Great Organ (Manual I) – 61 notes, enclosed
16
  Bourdon [TC]  
4
  Octave  
8
  Open Diapason *  
4
  Flute  
8
  Stopped Diapason  
2 2/3
  Twelfth  
8
  Salicional  
2
  Piccolo  
8
  Dulciana      
* outside swell box
               
Swell Organ (Manual II) – 61 notes, enclosed
16
  Contra Salicional [TC]  
4
  Dulcet  
8
  Stopped Diapason  
2 2/3
  Twelfth  
8
  Salicional  
2
  Piccolo  
8
  Voix Celeste  
1 3/5
  Tierce  
8
  Dulciana  
8
  Oboe  
4
  Violina       Tremulant  
4
  Flute          
               
Pedal Organ – 32? notes
16
  Bourdon  
4
  Dulcet  
8
  Stopped Flute  
16
  Bassoon  
8
  Viola          
               
Couplers
    Great to Pedal          
    Swell to Pedal          
    Swell to Great          
               
Pedal Movements
    Balanced Swell Pedal          
    Crescendo Pedal          
               
Organ in St. Joseph's Hall of present building:

George Jardine & Son
New York City (c.1895)
Unknown action


The Memorial booklet of the Church of St. Mary the Virgin, published in 1895, states, "In St. Joseph's Hall is a fine large organ." Specifications of this organ have not yet been located.
               
  Geo. Jardine and Son organ (1886) in Church of St. Mary the Virgin - New York City
  Chancel showing Jardine organ at left
Organ in first church at 228 West 45th Street:

George Jardine & Son
New York City (1886)
Mechanical action
2 manuals, 19 stops, 20 ranks





The organ in the original church building was built in 1886 by George Jardine & Son of New York City. This organ had mechanical action and was installed on the left side of the chancel. Following is the program from the "Dedication and Exhibition" of the organ on October 3, 1886:

1. FANTASIA
Jardine
 
(Displaying the solo stops, and the power and variety of the organ)
 
Mr. Jardine
2. OFFERTOIRE IN D
Batiste
 
Mr. Wm. E. Mulligan
3. FUGUE
Messe
 
Mr. J. Rosenthal
4. SOLO
Selected
 
Mr. R. R. Warren
5. a. SCHERZO (D major)
Lemaigre
  b. ALLEGRETTO (B minor)
Guilmant
6. THUNDER STORM
Jardine
 
Mr. Jardine
7. FANTASIA IN E FLAT
St. Saens
8. POSTLUDE
Batiste
 
[no performer listed for last two pieces]
               
Great Organ (Manual I) – 58 notes
16
  Double Open Diapason
58
8
  Melodia
58
8
  Open Diapason
58
4
  Flute Harmonic
58
8
  Violin Gamba
58
4
  Principal
58
8
  Doppel Flute (wood)
58
2
  Piccolo
58
               
Swell Organ (Manual II) – 58 notes, enclosed
8
  Open Diapason
58
2
  Flageolet
58
8
  Clariana
58
    Cornet, 2 ranks
116
8
  Aeolina
58
8
  Trumpet [TC]
46
8
  Lieblich Gedackt (wood)
58
8
  Bassoon [bass]
12
4
  Violino
58
8
  Vox Humana
58
               
Pedal Organ – 27 notes
16
  Open Diapason (wood)
27
   
16
  Bourdon (wood)
27
       
               
Couplers & Mechanicals
    Swell to Great       Forte to Great Organ  
    Great to Pedal       Piano to Great Organ  
    Swell to Pedal       Bellows  
    Swell Tremulant       Balance Swell  
             
Organ in first church at 228 West 45th Street:

Unknown Builder
(1870)
Mechanical action


Accounts describing the dedication of the first building mention an organ. No further information is available.
               
Sources:
     Aeolian-Skinner Archives web site: http://aeolian-skinner.110mb.com/
     Babin, Kyle. "Music at the Church of Saint Mary the Virgin, New York City (1868-Present), and Its Importance in the History of Sacred and Secular Music." New York: Manhattan School of Music doctoral thesis, May 2008.
     Babin, Kyle. Specifications of Casavant Frères Organ (1934) in St. Joseph's Hall.
     Barnes, William Harrison. The Contemporary American Organ: Its Evolution, Design and Construction (Sixth Edition). New York: J. Fischer & Bro., 1956.
     Callahan, Charles. The American Classic Organ - A History in Letters. Richmond: The Organ Historical Society, 1990. Aeolian-Skinner shop notes dated October 12, 1955.
     Dolkart, Andrew S. and Matthew A. Postal. Guide to New York City Landmarks (Third Edition). New York City Landmarks Preservation Commission. Hoboken: John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2004.
     Dunlap, David. From Abyssinian to Zion: A Guide to Manhattan's Houses of Worship. New York: Columbia University Press, 2004.
     Farnam, Lynnwood. "Organ Notebook" with specification of George Jardine & Son organ, Op. 1139 (1896). John de Lancie Library, The Curtis Institute of Music, Philadelphia. Courtesy Sally Branca, Archivist, and Jonathan Bowen.
     Kinzey, Allen, and Sand Lawn, comps. E.M. Skinner/Aeolian-Skinner Opus List. New Rev. Ed. Richmond: The Organ Historical Society, 1997.
     Memorial of the New Church on the 25th Anniversary of the Parish, Feast of the Conception of the Virgin Mary 1895. New York: The Board of Trustees of the Church of St. Mary the Virgin, 1895.
     Musical Courier (Dec. 18, 1896). Item about the George Jardine & Son organ, Op. 1139 (1896). Courtesy Larry Trupiano.
     Musical Courier (Feb. 12, 1896). Item about the first recital on George Jardine & Son organ, Op. 1139 (1896). Courtesy Larry Trupiano.
     Ogasapian, John. Organ Building in New York City: 1700-1900. Braintree: The Organ Literature Foundation, 1977. Stoplist and Dedication Program (Oct. 3, 1886) of George Jardine & Son organ (1886).
     Read, Newbury Frost. The Story of St. Mary's. New York: The Board of Trustees of the Church of St. Mary the Virgin, 1931.
     St. Mary the Virgin web site: www.stmvirgin.org
     Trupiano, Larry. Specifications of Martin Bohling organ, Op. 1 (1960s) in St. Joseph's Hall.

Illustrations:
     The Architectural Record (Vol. XXVII, No. 5, May 1910). Exterior (c.1910).
     Ave (Dec. 1969), newsletter of St. Mary the Virgin. Proposed case by G. Donald Harrison for Aeolian-Skinner Organ, Op. 891 (1932).
     Glück, Sebastian. Photo (c.1986) showing mitred 32' Euphone.
     Read, Newbury Frost. The Story of St. Mary's. Exterior and chancel of 45th Street church.
     Rust, John. Color photos of interior; rebuilt gallery console (1995); Holtkamp chancel console.
     St. Mary the Virgin Archives. Chancel boy choir (1900).
     Trupiano, Larry. Drawing of proposed case (Sep. 8, 1929) for Aeolian-Skinner Organ, Op. 891 (1932).
     White, Ernest. Photo (c.1940) of Aeolian-Skinner organ, Op. 891 (1932).