St. Paul's Chapel (Trinity Church) - New York City
  Click on images to enlarge
St. Paul's Chapel – Trinity Parish
(Episcopal)

209 Broadway at Fulton Street
New York, N.Y. 10006
http://www.trinitywallstreet.org/congregation/spc/


Organ Specifications:
II/33 Schlicker Organ Company (1964); reb. Andover (1981)
III/58 Aeolian-Skinner Organ Co., Op. 768-A (1950)
III/41 Skinner Organ Company, Op. 768 (1929)
III/31 J.H. & C.S. Odell, Op. 92 (1870)
III/25 George Pike England (1802)


1898 photo of St. Paul's Chapel (Trinity Church) - New York City  
West Entrance and Cemetery (1898)  
St. Paul's Chapel was built from 1764 to 1766 as a "Chappell of Ease" of Trinity Church to serve those parishioners who resided amidst the wheat fields and countryside north of the city. Today, St. Paul's Chapel is Manhattan's oldest public building in continuous use, and its remaining colonial church. The Georgian Classic-Revival style building, which resembles the Church of St. Martin-in-the-Fields in London, was designed by Andrew Gautier (although for many years credit went to Thomas McBean). The ornamental design of the "Glory" over the altar is the work of Pierre L'Enfant, who designed Washington, D.C. The "Glory" depicts Mt. Sinai in clouds and lightning, the Hebrew word for "God" in a triangle, and the two tablets of the Law with the Ten Commandments. The pulpit is surmounted by a coronet and six feathers. Fourteen original cut-glass chandeliers hang in the nave and the galleries. The distinctive wooden steeple, as designed by James Crommelin Lawrence, was added in 1794. Two bells are in the spire: the first inscribed "Mears London, Fecit [Made] 1797," and the second bell, made in 1866, was added in celebration of the chapel's 100th anniversary. President George Washington, who was inaugrated in 1789, worshiped at St. Paul's during the two years that New York City was the nation's capital.

St. Paul's Chapel of Trinity Church - New York City (photo: Steven E. Lawson)  
Immediately following the September 11, 2001 terrorist attack on the World Trade Center, St. Paul's Chapel, located just a few hundred feet east of the site, became a shelter and comfort center for the many people who assisted in the rescue and recovery efforts. Its old pews became a place for prayer and rest, its fence was covered with posters and snapshots of missing persons, and a kitchen was set up for the many volunteers. In the ensuing years, the pews (except those used by George Washington and the governor) have been removed to storage and the chapel has become a center for meditation.
             
 

Schlicker organ (1964) in St. Paul's Chapel (Trinity Church) - New York City (photo: Steven E. Lawson)

   
  Schlicker organ (1964) in St. Paul's Chapel (Trinity Church) - New York City (photo: Steven E. Lawson)
Schlicker Organ Company
Buffalo, N.Y. (1964); reb. Andover Organ Company (1981)
Mechanical key action
Electro-pneumatic stop action
Slider wind chests
2 manual, 25 stops, 33 ranks



The present organ in St. Paul's Chapel was built in 1964 by the Schlicker Organ Company of Buffalo, replacing the previous Aeolian-Skinner organ from 1950. Robert Arnold, Assistant Organist for Trinity Church and the New York area representative of the Schlicker Organ Company, handled the details of the sale. Mr. Arnold supplied the following information for the press:

"The rear gallery installation was patterned after the classic organs of Arp Schnitger with slider chests throughout and tracker key action. The wind pressure for the instrument is 2" and all pipes are voiced with no nicking. The display pipes are of 90% tin and are speaking pipes; all other manual and pedal principal and mixture pipes from 4' C up are of 85% tin.

"The mahogany organ case was built around 1803 by John Geib [later modified by the J.H. & C.S. Odell Company] and was restored by Schlicker in 1964. The placement of the divisions within the case is as follows: Positiv on the bottom, Hauptwerk on top with the Pedal on either side. Each division has its own reflective housing.

"The manuals are arranged with Hauptwerk on bottom, Positiv on top with ivory naturals and ebony sharps. The combination action is with setter board and electro-pneumatic stop action."

In 1981, the organ was rebuilt by the Andover Organ Company (as Op. R-248) of Methuen, Mass. Following the terrorist attack of September 11, 2001, the organ was silenced, but in 2009 the organ was partially cleaned and made playable by Mann & Trupiano of Brooklyn so that it could be used on Easter Day 2009.
               
Hauptwerk (Manual I) – 56 notes
16
  Quintadena
56
2 2/3
  Quint
56
8
  Principal
56
2
  Octave
56
8
  Rohrgedeckt
56
1 3/5
  Terz
56
4
  Octave
56
    Mixture IV-V ranks
268
4
  Spitzflöte
56
8
  Trompete
56

     

     
Positiv (Manual II) – 56 notes
8
  Holzgedeckt
56
1
  Sifflöte
56
4
  Principal
56
    Scharf III ranks
168
4
  Rohrflöte
56
8
  Krummhorn
56
2
  Gemshorn
56
    Tremolo  
1 1/3
  Klein-Nasat
56
       

     

     
Pedal – 30 notes
16
  Subbass
30
2
  Nachthorn
30
8
  Principal
30
    Mixture III ranks
90
8
  Flachflöte
30
16
  Fagott
30
4
  Choralbass
30
4
  Schalmei
30
               
Couplers (duplicated by reversible toe studs)
    Hauptwerk to Pedal   Positiv to Hauptwerk
    Positiv to Pedal    
         
Adjustable Combinations (by setterboard)
   
Hauptwerk Pistons 1-2-3-4 (thumb)
Positiv Pistons 1-2-3-4 (thumb)
Pedal Pistons 1-2-3 (thumb & toe)
General Pistons 1-2-3-4-5 (toe)
  Cancel (thumb)
             
Aeolian-Skinner Organ Company, Inc.
Boston, Mass. – Opus 768-A (1950)
Electro-pneumatic key and stop action
3 manuals, 54 stops, 58 ranks


The 1929 Skinner organ was revised and enlarged by Aeolian-Skinner in 1950 . When the Schlicker organ was installed in 1964, the Aeolian-Skinner organ was rebuilt and altered by Schlicker and moved to the Chapel of the Intercession, Trinity's cemetery chapel located in Washington Heights.
               
Great Organ (Manual II) – 61 notes (3 3/4" wind)
16
  Quintaton
61
2 2/3
  Quint
61
8
  Diapason
61
2
  Super Octave
61
8
  Bourdon
61
  Fourniture IV ranks
244
8
  Erzähler
61
8
  French Horn [enc. in CH]
61
4
  Principal
61
8
  Trumpet * [ext. PED]
17
4
  Rohrflöte
61
   
* tilting tablet to right of ind. lights
               
Swell Organ (Manual III) – 61 notes, enclosed (5" wind)
16
  Bourdon
73
2
  Flautino
61
8
  Diapason
73
    Plein Jeu V ranks
305
8
  Rohrflöte
73
 
  Cymbal II-III ranks
183
8
  Salicional
73
16
  Bombarde
73
8
  Voix Celeste
73
8
  Trompette
73
8
  Aeoline
73
8
  Oboe
73
8
  Unda Maris [TC]
61
4
  Clairon
73
4
  Octave
73
    Tremulant  
4
  Flute
73
       

     

     
Choir-Positiv Organ (Manual I)
    61 notes, enclosed (5" wind)     56 notes, on North gallery wall (2 3/4" wind)
8
  Chimney Flute
73
8
  Nason Flute
56
8
  Viola
73
4
  Prinzipal
56
8
  Dulciana
73
2 2/3
  Nazat
56
4
  Prestant
73
2
  Zauberflöte
56
4
  Koppelflöte
73
1 3/5
  Terz
56
2
  Piccolo
73
    Zimbel III ranks
168
8
  Clarinet
73
     
8
  English Horn
73
     
8
  Trumpet [tilting tablet right of ind. lights]    
    Tremulant [on/off switch in right Choir cheek]    
               
Pedal Organ – 32 notes
16
  Principal
32
8
  Still Gedeckt
SW
16
  Violone
44
4
  Choral Bass [fr. 8' Principal]
16
  Quintaten
GT
    Mixture III ranks
96
16
  Echo Lieblich
SW
16
  Posaune
56
8
  Principal
44
8
  Trumpet [fr. 16' Posaune]
8
  Cello [fr. 16' Violone]
4
  Clarion [fr. 16' Posaune]
             
  Skinner Organ, Op. 768 (1929) in St. Paul's Chapel (Trinity Church) - New York City
Skinner Organ Company
Boston, Mass. – Opus 768 (1929)
Electro-pneumatic key and stop action
3 manuals, 43 stops, 41 ranks





An entirely new organ was built in 1929 by the Skinner Organ Company of Boston. Skinner reused the 1802 Geib case, as enlarged in 1870 by J.H. & C.S. Odell. To the left of the case was placed the three-manual drawknob console. The Factory Specification (Feb. 28, 1929) is as follows:
               
Great Organ (Manual II) – 61 notes
8
  First Diapason
61
4
  Flute *
61
8
  Second Diapason
61
2
  Fifteenth
61
8
  Principal Flute *
61
8
  French Horn *
61
8
  Erzahler
61
    Tremolo (enclosed stops only)
4
  Octave
61
   
* in Choir box

 

     

 

     
Swell Organ (Manual III) – 61 notes, enclosed
16
  Bourdon
73
2
  Flautino
61
8
  Diapason
73
    Mixture V ranks
305
8
  Salicional
73
16
  Waldhorn
73
8
  Voix Celeste
73
8
  Cornopean
73
8
  Aeoline
73
8
  Oboe
73
8
  Unda Maris [TC]
61
8
  Vox Humana
61
8
  Rohrflute
73
4
  Clarion
73
4
  Octave
73
    Tremolo  
4
  Flute
73
       

     

     
Choir Organ (Manual I) – 61 notes, enclosed
8
  Diapason
73
2
  Piccolo
61
8
  Gamba
73
8
  Clarinet
61
8
  Dulciana
73
8
  English Horn
61
8
  Chimney Flute
73
    Tremolo  
4
  Flute Harmonique
73
   
Harp
preparation
2 2/3
  Nazard
61
   
Celesta
preparation
               
Pedal Organ – 32 notes (Augmented)
16
  Diapason **
44
8
  Gedeckt [ext.]
16
  Keraulophone **
44
8
  Still Gedeckt
SW
16
  Bourdon **
44
8
  Cello [ext.]
16
  Echo Lieblich
SW
16
  Trombone
32
8
  Octave [ext.]
16
  Waldhorn
SW
           
** pipes reused from previous organ
Couplers
    Great to Pedal   Choir to Great 16', 8', 4'
    Swell to Pedal 8', 4'   Swell to Choir 16', 8', 4'
    Choir to Pedal 8', 4'   Swell 16', 4'
    Swell to Great 16', 8', 4'   Choir 16', 4'
             
Adjustable Combinations
   
Swell Organ Pistons 1-2-3-4-5-6 (thumb) Ped. to Man. Combs. On & Off
Great Organ Pistons 1-2-3-4 (thumb) Ped. to Man. Combs. On & Off
Choir Organ Pistons 1-2-3-4-5 (thumb) Ped. to Man. Combs. On & Off
Pedal Organ Pistons 1-2-3 (toe)  
Entire Organ Pistons 1-2-3-4 (thumb)  
  General Cancel (thumb)  
  Set (thumb)  
             
Reversibles
    Great to Pedal (thumb & toe)   Swell to Choir (thumb)
    Choir to Pedal (thumb & toe)   Sforzando (thumb & toe)
             
Expression
    Balanced Pedal – Swell Organ    
    Balanced Pedal – Choir Organ    
    Register Crescendo Pedal    
         
Skinner Organ, Op. 768 (1929) in St. Paul's Chapel (Trinity Church) - New York City   Skinner Organ, Op. 768 (1929) in St. Paul's Chapel (Trinity Church) - New York City   Skinner Organ, Op. 768 (1929) in St. Paul's Chapel (Trinity Church) - New York City
             
  J.H. & C.S. Odell Organ, Op. 92 (1870) in St. Paul's Chapel (Trinity Church) - New York City
  J.H. & C.S. Odell organ and console
J.H. & C.S. Odell
New York City – Opus 92 (1870)
Mechanical action
3 manuals, 28 stops, 31 ranks




The second organ in St. Paul's Chapel was built in 1870 by J.H. & C.S. Odell of New York City. In order to accomodate the larger organ, the Odells enlarged the original 1802 Geib case so that it was six feet wider and two feet deeper. The Odells included six each of their patented "Pneumatic Composition knobs" for the Swell and Great divisions, a register crescendo, and two extra thumb pistons that were "reversibles" for the Swell-to-Choir and Great-to-Pedal couplers. The organ's tone was described as "...good, well-balanced, and brilliant; fine contrasts and perfect gradations from the soft to the loud effects are attainable. While the stops present, in detail, many charming characteristics, they blend well one with the other and collectively make a grand ensemble." The Choir reed, termed "Cherubino," was "...formed of reeds placed in bell shaped tubes [i.e., free reeds] ... perhaps the most beautiful stop on the organ, the quality of it is something between a Cremona and Vox Humana."
               
Great Organ (Manual II) – 58 notes
16
  Bourdon
58
2 2/3
  Twelfth
58
8
  Open Diapason
58
2
  Fifteenth
58
8
  Bell Gamba
58
    Mixture, 3 ranks
174
8
  Stopped Diapason
58
8
  Trumpet
58
4
  Principal
58
       
               
Swell Organ (Manual III) – 58 notes, enclosed
16
  Bourdon
58
2
  Fifteenth
58
8
  Open Diapason
58
    Mixture, 4 ranks
232
8
  Salicional
58
8
  Cornopean
58
8
  Stopped Diapason
58
8
  Oboe
58
4
  Principal
58
       

     

     
Choir Organ (Manual I) – 58 notes
8
  Keraulophone
58
4
  Wald Flute
58
8
  Dulciana
58
2
  Piccolo
58
8
  Melodia
58
8
  Cherubino [free reed]
58
4
  Principal
58
       
               
Pedal Organ – 27 notes
16
  Double Open Diapason
27
8
  Violoncello
27
16
  Keraulophone
27
8
  Gamba
27
10 2/3
  Quint
27
16
  Trombone
27
             
George Pike England
London, England (1802)
Mechanical action
3 manuals, 19 stops, 25 ranks


The first organ installed in St. Paul's Chapel was built in 1802 by George Pike England of London, England. It was installed in a case built that same year by John Geib, an organ builder in New York; the height of the organ was 22 feet, width 14 feet, and depth 8 feet. By 1870, the 1802 England organ had undergone a good deal of alteration in the 68 years since its installation. The Odells took the instrument in trade against the $9,000 contract price of the new organ. It was rebuilt in their shops as opus 102, and subsequently placed in St. Mary's Church, Port Jarvis, N.Y., in 1871, where it remained until being discarded in 1963.
               
Great Organ – 58 notes (GG, AA–f3)
    Open Diapason
    Tierce
    Stop Diapason
    Sesquialtra, 3 ranks
    Principal
  Cornet, 5 ranks mounted
    Twelfth
    Trumpet  
    Fifteenth          
               
Swell Organ – 35 notes (from tenor g)
    Open Diapason
    Hautboy
    Stop Diapason
    Trumpet
    Principal
     
               
Choir Organ – 58 notes (GG, AA–f3)
    Stop Diapason
    Flute
    Dulceana
    Vox Humana
    Principal
       
               
    Trimland to whole organ          
 
Sources:
     Arnold, Robert. Specification and description of the Schlicker organ (1964). The American Organist (June 1964).
     Dix, Morgan. A History of the Parish of Trinity Church in the City of New York. New York: G.P. Putnam's Sons, 1898.
     Dolkart, Andrew S. and Matthew A. Postal.Guide to New York City Landmarks (Third Edition). New York City Landmarks Preservation Commission. Hoboken: John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2004.
     Dunlap, David. From Abyssinian to Zion: A Guide to Manhattan's Houses of Worship. New York: Columbia University Press, 2004.
     Holden, Dorothy. The Life and Work of Ernest M. Skinner. Richmond: The Organ Historical Society, 1987.
     Kinzey, Allen, and Sand Lawn, comps. E.M. Skinner/Aeolian-Skinner Opus List. New Rev. Ed. Richmond: The Organ Historical Society, 1997.
     Ochse, Orpha. The History of the Organ in the United States. Bloomington, Indiana University Press, 1975.
     Ogasapian, John. Organ Building in New York City: 1700-1900. Braintree: The Organ Literature Foundation, 1977. Stoplist of George Pike England organ (1802).
     St. Paul's Chapel web site: http://www.trinitywallstreet.org/congregation/spc/
     Trupiano, Larry. Factory Specification (Feb. 28, 1929) of Skinner Organ, Op. 768.

Illustrations:
     Blanton, Joseph E. The Organ in Church Design. Albany: Venture Press, 1957. Skinner organ, Op. 768 (1929).
     Dix, Morgan. A History of the Parish of Trinity Church in the City of New York. Exterior (c.1898).
     Lawson, Steven E. Interior; Schlicker organ (1964).
     Lewis, James. J.H. & C.S. Odell organ, Op. 92 (1870).
     Moses, Arnold. Organ in West Balcony (1937). Library of Congress Prints and Photographs Online.